Saturday, November 22, 2008

fwknopd - Firewall Knock Operator aka SPA, Single Packet Authentication

fwknop is a tool used with the iptable to provide the single packet authentication.

I know the fwknop since i brought the bok Linux Firewalls by Michael Rash. He is the guy who created the fwknop, PSAD, fwsnort and etc security tools.


fwknop is a tool use to add the SSH service with specific IP into the iptables' rule and it is just available for 30 seconds to connect to server. Once time exceed, it will remove the rule from iptables, so that no one can connect to server.

For more information , please read the book Linux Firewalls and official website from Michael Rash http://www.cipherdyne.org/fwknop/


Now I have 2 boxes,

Node1 = 192.168.145.41 ( also known as server )

Node2 = 192.168.145.42 ( also known as client )

Node1 has been setup with firewall block the port 22


At, node2, now we do ssh to node1

1st, i scan the node1

[root@node2 ~]# nmap -P0 192.168.145.41 Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2008-11-23 11:56 MYT

Interesting ports on node1 (192.168.145.41): Not shown: 1677 filtered ports

PORT STATE SERVICE

80/tcp open http

113/tcp closed auth

8080/tcp closed http-proxy


MAC Address: 00:0C:29:5E:8B:28 (VMware) Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 22.151 seconds


2nd, i do ssh to node1

[root@node2 ~]# ssh 192.168.145.41

It has no return result.

At node1, let see the log

Nov 23 09:04:18 node1 kernel: Shorewall:net2all:DROP:IN=eth0 OUT= MAC=00:0c:29:5e:8b:28:00:0c:29:23:90:aa:08:00 SRC=192.168.145.42 DST=192.168.145.41 LEN=60 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=32176 DF PROTO=TCP SPT=44194 DPT=22 WINDOW=5840 RES=0x00 SYN URGP=0

See, my firewall has blocked out the 192.168.145.42.



Node1 :

[root@node1 fwknop]# vi /etc/fwknop/fwknop.conf

EMAIL_ADDRESSES chenghui81@gmail.com;

[root@node1 fwknop]# vi /etc/fwknop/access.conf

SOURCE: ANY;

OPEN_PORTS: tcp/22; ### for ssh (change for access to other services)

KEY: a13xch0ng;

FW_ACCESS_TIMEOUT: 30;


start the fwknop service

[root@node1 fwknop]# /etc/init.d/fwknop start

Starting the fwknop daemons: [ OK ]

tail the log

[root@node1 fwknop]# tail -f /var/log/messages

Nov 23 10:03:29 node1 init: Trying to re-exec init

Nov 23 11:33:28 node1 fwknopd: starting fwknopd v1.9.9 (file revision: 1353)

Nov 23 11:33:28 node1 fwknopd: flushing existing iptables fwknop chains

Nov 23 11:33:29 node1 fwknopd: imported access directives (1 SOURCE definitions).

Nov 23 11:33:29 node1 fwknopd: imported previous tracking digests from disk cache: /var/log/fwknop/digest.cache

Nov 23 11:33:29 node1 kernel: device eth0 entered promiscuous mode


(see the service started with the promiscuous mode, that mean it is sniffing the packet thru interface eth0.

you will see such message when you running sniffer )



Node2, now we do the Single Packet Authentication by using fwknop client

[root@node2 ~]# fwknop -A tcp/22 -a 192.168.145.42 -k 192.168.145.41


( note:: tcp/22 is refer to the port you wanted to connect, -a is refer to your source IP, -k is refer to your destination IP )


[+] Starting fwknop client (SPA mode)...

[+] Enter an encryption key. This key must match a key in the file

/etc/fwknop/access.conf on the remote system.

Encryption Key:

(it is asking the encryption key, the key is referring to the key you setup in the server side )


[+] Building encrypted Single Packet Authorization (SPA) message...

[+] Packet fields:

Random data: 2421962114322037

Username: root

Timestamp: 1227411567

Version: 1.9.9

Type: 1 (access mode)

Access: 192.168.145.42,tcp/22

SHA256 digest: uBZSsbkeoAH/pA44IHxLGvHt3rC8F513ry4XCVKimkU

[+] Sending 182 byte message to 192.168.145.41 over udp/62201...

Once you see such message that mean you are successfully initiated the connection.



Node1: from the /var/log/messages

Nov 23 11:39:45 node1 kernel: Shorewall:net2all:DROP:IN=eth0 OUT= MAC=00:0c:29:5e:8b:28:00:0c:29:23:90:aa:08:00 SRC=192.168.145.42 DST=192.168.145.41 LEN=210 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=43837 DF PROTO=UDP SPT=64210 DPT=62201 LEN=190

Nov 23 11:39:45 node1 fwknopd: received valid Rijndael encrypted packet from: 192.168.145.42, remote user: root, client version: 1.9.9 (SOURCE line num: 26)

Nov 23 11:39:45 node1 fwknopd: add FWKNOP_INPUT 192.168.145.42 -> 0.0.0.0/0(tcp/22) ACCEPT rule 30 sec

(note : see the last line that has added our IP to the iptables in order to let us connect the SSH in 30 seconds)



Node2 : I login the node1 asap

[root@node2 ~]# ssh 192.168.145.41 -l root

The authenticity of host '192.168.145.41 (192.168.145.41)' can't be established.

RSA key fingerprint is be:73:8b:27:48:96:ce:f5:16:7c:c5:0d:81:99:c7:3d.

Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes

Warning: Permanently added '192.168.145.41' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.

Address 192.168.145.41 maps to node1, but this does not map back to the address - POSSIBLE BREAK-IN ATTEMPT!

root@192.168.145.41's password:

Last login: Sun Nov 23 07:04:39 2008 from 192.168.145.1


( note: yes, we connected to the server thru ssh )

See the cool things from node1 , /var/log/messages

Nov 23 11:40:56 node1 fwknopd: add FWKNOP_INPUT 192.168.145.42 -> 0.0.0.0/0(tcp/22) ACCEPT rule 30 sec

Nov 23 11:41:28 node1 fwknop(knoptm): removed iptables FWKNOP_INPUT ACCEPT rule for 192.168.145.42 -> 0.0.0.0/0(tcp/22), 30 sec timeout exceeded


See the last 2nd line that told you the iptables has added the new rules to allow IP 192.168.145.42 (aka node2) to login thru port 22 within 30 sec


See the last line that told you the iptables has removed the rules from the iptables which is ip192.168.145.32 port 22 after 30 seconds


Yet, my email, please take a look : -





see that 2 unread emails, one is telling you the IP has been added into the iptables and another is telling you the time is exceed and the rule has been removed from iptables



fwknop is designed used to prevent the 0 day exploit..

cause once they scan your server, there is no ssh port opening :P

so, no way they can access into your server thru ssh.


cool is it??

quickly implement into your server to make another security layer for ssh.


4 comments:

Lesbian Penguin said...

yooo linux admin... soon going to be windows admin :D

CH Chong said...

ahaha..

after 2 years i got both linux and windows server skillset

so i can ask high pay then. :P

alok said...

Hi Friends,

Great post about configuring fwknop, I was looking for implementing vpn along with fwknop in all the technologies. I was searching on internet and came up with wonderful ebook on implementing vpn technologies through open source (PPTP,L2TP,IPsec,SSL) etc and this book helped me immensely to implement fwknop with vpn so that there are no unwanted connections to any other port. I would recommend everyone to buy the vpn ebook from http://www.ebooksyours.co/how_to_vpn.html

Thanks,
Kandarp

alok said...

Hi Friends,

Great post about configuring fwknop, I was looking for implementing vpn along with fwknop in all the technologies. I was searching on internet and came up with wonderful ebook on implementing vpn technologies through open source (PPTP,L2TP,IPsec,SSL) etc and this book helped me immensely to implement fwknop with vpn so that there are no unwanted connections to any other port. I would recommend everyone to buy the vpn ebook from http://www.ebooksyours.com/how_to_vpn.html

Thanks,
alok